Graphene is a fundamentally new type of tool for power generation
Knowledge about graphene as a source of energy is deepening and the possibility of its application in energy generating systems is becoming real and concrete.
The fact that graphene is able to generate electric current under the influence of neutrinos and other radiation fields was proved by scientists from the German scientific and technological company Neutrino Deutschland GmbH, led by Holger Thorsten Schubart, and used this discovery to create an innovative Neutrinovoltaic DC generation source.
It turned out that graphene (a two-dimensional allotropic modification of carbon formed by a layer of carbon atoms one atom thick. Carbon atoms are in sp² hybridization and connected via σ- and π-bonds into a hexagonal two-dimensional crystal lattice) cannot exist in the 2D plane.
To exist separately from each other, graphene must behave like a three-dimensional material to provide the necessary stability. It turned out that the “loophole” is the displacement of mobile atoms, which gives graphene the properties of the third dimension. In other words, graphene was never 100% flat - it vibrated at the atomic level so that its compounds did not undergo spontaneous decay. A group of physicists at the University of Manchester, led by Paul Thibado, proved that the matter is in the so-called "Levy flights" - patterns of small random fluctuations, combined with sudden, sharp shifts. On an atomic scale, physicists saw them for the first time. By measuring the speed and scale of these graphene waves, Thibadot suggested that they could be used to extract energy from the environment.
By placing electrodes on both sides of a section of such graphene, a tiny generator was obtained.According to calculations, graphene with a size of 10x10 microns has a power of 10 microwatts.This is not much for the applied use of such an effect.However, scientists at the University of Manchester have recorded and confirmed the very fact of the possibility of obtaining an electric current on a single layer of graphene.
Theoretical and experimental data on the properties of graphene and the principle of manufacturing devices that allow the creation of an operating technology for generating electric current were first announced and technologically substantiated by scientists from the German company Neutrino Deutschland GmbH under the guidance of a mathematician, Dr. Ek. Holger Thorsten Schubart. The technology was named Neutrinovoltaic. The company has moved much further ahead in comparison with the work of all other researchers and, above all, in the aspect of the applied application of knowledge in this area and consolidated its undeniable priority by obtaining patent No. addition of alloying elements. The invented nanomaterial makes it possible to convert the energy of neutrinos and other particles of the surrounding radiation fields into electricity.
As with the recently discovered three-layer graphene superconducting material, the Neutrinovoltaic technology developed by Holger Thorsten Schubart and the company's international team of scientists, engineers and technicians is based on the use of ultra-thin layers of graphene to create resonance from transmitted radiation of artificial and natural origin, including cosmic neutrinos, and the conversion of the kinetic energy of particles into electric current. To achieve the desired effect, graphene and doped silicon are deposited on a metal foil substrate in several layers, and when radiation passes through this combination of silicon and graphene layers, a harmonic resonance process starts, which is then recorded by an electric converter. The coated side of the metal carrier is the positive pole, while the uncoated side is the negative. Multi-layer coating allows you to get more energy per unit area, which is an extremely important factor for the creation of industrial power generating products.
This makes it possible to manufacture compact power sources of various power characteristics and sizes and allows you to create power sources for power supply to households, as well as place them inside the cases of almost all devices that require power, including the cases of electric vehicles. Several sheets of foil coated with an innovative nanomaterial, placed one above the other like a pack of writing paper, and therefore connected in series, make up an energy cell. When varying the connection of several energy cells, a direct current source of the required overall dimensions and power characteristics is created. The DC power source is the size of a diplomat and has an output power of 4.5 to 5.5 kWh.
Over the past five years, a number of scientific publications have appeared that are devoted to the interaction of neutrinos with substances. The role of neutrino energy in the process of power generation using Neutrinovoltaic technology is difficult to overestimate. The latest published data from the COHERENT experiments at the Oak Ridge Laboratory (USA) proved that low-energy neutrinos participate in weak interactions with matter nuclei. The researchers were the first to discover and analyze the coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos by nuclei. This long-awaited confirmation, predicted in the Standard Model of particle physics, estimates the process accurately enough to impose limits on alternative theoretical models.
Interactions of neutrinos with matter are one of the main factors that cause graphene atoms to vibrate, occurring in the form of “graphene waves”, which, upon contact with silicon layers, release electrons and generate an electric current.But, any neutrino that has mass will interact with matter.Neutrinos have mass, and therefore energy, according to the formula E=mc², an equation that, in theoretical physics, establishes the relationship between energy (E), in any form, and mass (m).
The theoretical fundamentals of Neutrinovoltaic technology and examples of its application have been studied in detail by scientists from the German company Neutrino Deutschland GmbH and are detailed in various publications.
Studies of the properties of graphene independently carried out by world scientific centers in parallel show the undoubted promise of using graphene to create environmentally friendly direct current sources and create a distributed power supply system based on them that does not require a centralized power supply. Neutrino Deutschland GmbH has taken the first successful step in this direction, showing how close to reality is the seemingly fantastic idea of converting the energy of radiation fields into direct current. A material with unique properties - graphene - and the progressive development of scientific thought make this possible.
Author: Rumyantsev L.K., Ph.D.