Neutrinovoltaic technology is a thermal (Brownian) motion conversion technology graphene atoms and the energy of the surrounding fields of radiation of the invisible spectrum, including neutrinos, into an electric current using a multilayer nanomaterial based on graphene.
The patent application was filed in 2013, the invention is protected by international patent WO2016142056A1. Structurally, the nanomaterial consists of alternating layers of graphene and silicon with the application of layer-by-layer alloying elements, each layer of graphene is located between 2 layers of silicon (Fig. 1). The first layer of graphene is deposited on a metal foil, usually aluminum. The number of graphene-silicon layers is from 12 to 20, optimally 12 layers. The nanomaterial is deposited on one side of the metal foil, making the side with the nanomaterial the positive pole and the uncoated side the negative pole. Such a power generating plate with a size of 200x300 mm under normal conditions has a voltage of 1.5 V and a current of 2 A.
Fig.1. Schematic representation of a nanomaterial
A mechanism that allows you to convert the energy of the surrounding fields of radiation into electric current
Graphene is the only currently known material that belongs to 2D materials, but can only exist stably in a three-dimensional coordinate system, as a 3D material. Observation of the graphene layer through a microscope with a high resolution shows the presence of vibrations similar to waves on the surface of the sea (Fig. 2), i.e. when adjacent regions alternate between concave and convex curvature. The stronger the impact of energy and thermal fields, the stronger the oscillations of graphene atoms, and hence the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of "graphene waves". Theoretical studies provide an explanation that the source of this process is the electron-phonon coupling, since it suppresses the long-wavelength bending rigidity and enhances out-of-plane fluctuations.
Fig.2. Schematic representation of the vibration of graphene in the form of "graphene waves"
It is the presence of “graphene waves” that makes it possible to generate an electric current, and the amplitude and frequency of oscillations of “graphene waves” depend on the quality of graphene deposition. They are maximum with one layer of graphene, but if the technology of applying graphene is violated and several of its layers are applied to each other, then the amplitude and frequency of oscillations of the “graphene wave” decreases. The explanation for these experimental results was independently verified by ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich) professor Vanessa Wood and her colleagues, who showed that when producing materials smaller than 10-20 nanometers, i.e. 5000 times thinner than a human hair, the vibrations of the outer atomic layers on the surface of nanoparticles are large and play an important role in the behavior of this material. These atomic vibrations, or "phonons", are responsible for how electrical charge and heat are transferred in materials (Figure 3).
Fig.3. The vibrations of atoms in materials, "phonons", are responsible for how electrical charge and heat are transferred in materials. (Graphics: Denise Bozigit / ETH Zurich).
Therefore, adherence to the graphene deposition technology is a key technological challenge, especially on wafers larger than 100x100 mm.Graphene has an extremely high electric current density (a million times greater than that of copper) and record carrier mobility. In graphene, each atom is bonded to 3 other carbon atoms in a 2D plane, with one electron remaining freely available in the 3rd dimension for electron conduction.In an interview with Research Frontiers, Professor Thibado (University of Arkansas) stated: “This is the key to using the movement of 2D materials as a source of inexhaustible energy. Tandem vibrations cause ripples in the graphene sheet, which allows you to extract energy from the surrounding space using the latest nanotechnology. Graphene films are surprisingly strong and elastic. Graphene has a very high thermal conductivity, which, combined with its high electrical conductivity, allows the passage of an electric current a million times higher than the maximum possible current in copper films. At elevated temperatures, according to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, some of the electrons pass into the conduction band, and "holes" remain in the valence band. This determines the fairly high electrical conductivity of graphene at room temperature. Conduction electrons and “holes” in graphene have zero effective mass, i.e. they cannot be stationary, but move all the time with the "Fermi velocity", which in graphene is about 106 m/s, that is, it is already relativistic. This determines the very high mobility of charge carriers in graphene, at least two orders of magnitude higher than their mobility in silicon, and the “ballistic” nature of their motion over the film. The mean free path of conduction electrons and holes in graphene at room temperature exceeds 1 μm.Harmonic vibrations of "graphene waves" turning into resonance, in fact, is the work done, necessary to convert the thermal (Brownian) motion of graphene atoms and the energy of particles of the surrounding fields of radiation of the invisible spectrum, including the kinetic energy of neutral neutrino particles, into electric current. As in the currently produced power generators installed at power plants, the developed Bedini power generation circuits and other fuelless power generation magnetic motor circuits, the occurrence of an electromotive force (EMF) occurs in each layer of graphene due to the interaction of magnetic and electric fields. However, the cardinal difference lies in the fact that in Neutrinovoltaic technology the pulsating mechanism of interaction arises not as a result of rotation of the rotor with a magnetic coil, but in the process of microvibrations of graphene in a nanomaterial, which is another physical principle of the emergence of EMF. The emf that arises in each layer of graphene causes electrons to flow in one direction, i.e. an electric current occurs. The movement of electrons in one direction is achieved by applying film coatings of each layer with alloying elements that create a p-n junction that passes electric current in only one direction, i.e. a thin-film diode effect occurs. The multilayer nature of the nanomaterial provides a solution to the problem of obtaining the maximum possible electrical power from a unit surface, since one layer of graphene cannot provide sufficient power for industrial applications.
Influence of neithrino on the process of oscillations of the "graphene wave"
In 2019, information was published that scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) managed to determine the mass of neutrinos with unprecedented accuracy. According to KIT, a neutrino is at least 500,000 times lighter than an electron; the particle mass is about 1.1 electron volts.The mechanism of interaction between neutrinos and matter was discovered and described in the publications of the COHERENT collaboration at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA). Low-energy neutrinos have been shown to interact weakly with argon nuclei. This process is called coherent elastic neutrino-nuclear scattering (CEvNS). A neutrino, like a tennis ball hitting a bowling ball, hits the large and heavy nucleus of an atom and transfers a tiny amount of energy to it. As a result, the core almost imperceptibly bounces off (Fig. 4).
Fig.4. Simplified scheme of coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos by heavy nuclei. D. Akimov et. al. / Science
A similar interaction of low-energy neutrinos also takes place when interacting with graphene. Argon has an atomic number of 18 in the periodic table of chemical elements and an atomic weight of 39.948, while graphene (carbon) has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic weight of 12.011. This suggests that the effect of neutrino impacts on graphene atomic nuclei will be more pronounced than on argon nuclei. Moreover, the greater the kinetic energy of neutrinos, the greater will be the effect of their interaction with graphene nuclei, which means that the vibrations of its atoms are stronger. The size of the core of a graphene atom is very small compared to the size of the graphene atom itself, so only a small fraction of neutrinos that have mass can interact with the core of a graphene atom and cause it to vibrate. As is known, the neutrino flux through 1 cm2 of the earth's surface in 1 second is 60 billion, therefore, even a fraction of a percent of such a neutrino flux contributes to the process of oscillations of "graphene waves", although at present it is not possible to estimate the contribution of neutrinos to the process of oscillations of graphene atoms in comparison with other energy fields and thermal (Brownian) motion. However, according to Neutrino Energy Group scientists, this process is very important, and therefore the technology is called Neutrinovoltaic.